Substantial cost savings comes from statewide subsidized spay and neuter programs by reducing the costs of services to deal with stray, abandoned and feral animals and their offspring. The International City/County Management Association (ICMA) found that in the six years since the New Hampshire Animal Population Control Program’s inception, the state admitted 30,985 fewer dogs and cats than in the six years preceding the program. ICMA estimates that New Hampshire saved $3.2 million in impoundment costs based on a per animal shelter cost estimate of $105. The cost of the program was just over $1 million, meaning the state saved more than $2.2 million in the program’s first six years. Thus New Hampshire taxpayers saved about $3.23 for every dollar the state spent on a subsidized sterilization program. New Jersey’s statewide spay and neuter fund has also saved the state money – for every dollar spent towards spay and neuter it saved $3 in impoundment fees due to the decrease in intake rates.